Get free ebooK with 50 must do coding Question for Product Based Companies solved
Fill the details & get ebook over email
Thank You!
We have sent the Ebook on 50 Must Do Coding Questions for Product Based Companies Solved over your email. All the best!

# atoi() Function in C

Last Updated on November 30, 2023 by Ankit Kochar

In the C programming language, the atoi() function holds significance as a tool for converting strings to integers. The name "atoi" stands for "ASCII to Integer," indicating its purpose to transform character representations of numbers into their integer equivalents. Understanding the usage, limitations, and nuances of the atoi() function is essential for C programmers dealing with string manipulations and numerical conversions. This discussion explores the role of the atoi() function, its implementation, and considerations when employing it in C programming.

## What is atoi() Function?

The atoi function in c is used to get the integer value from the string of characters. The input is nothing but a string of characters that will read the characters and stops when it encounters a character and that character is not considered to be a part of the number. It also stops when it encounters the null character at the end of the string. The atoi function in c down not supports the decimal numbers and exponents. The function is included in the library stdlib.h.
It will skip all the white space characters in the string. It will return the integer conversion of the given string.

### Syntax of atoi() Function in C

The syntax of the atoi function in c is given below.

``int atoi(const char *str);``

### Parameters of atoi() Function in C

The atoi function in c will have only one input parameter. The only input parameter passed to the atoi in c is a string. We should always pass the string at a constant. We pass the value of the input string as constant because the function only has to return the integer value and the function does not have to do anything with the string so to make sure the function does not change the value of the string we pass it as constant.

### Return Value of atoi() Function in C

If the input is valid the atoi function in c will return the corresponding integer value of the given string. For the non-valid inputs, the atoi function in will return 0.
It works by reading the characters of the string one by one so the moment it sees a null character, or a non-ASCII value it will stop working and it will also skips all the white blank spaces at the start of the string.

There atoi function in c can work if the string follows the following conditions.

• The strings that are made up of entirely ASCII digits i.e, ‘0’, ‘1’, ‘2’, ‘3’, ‘4’, ‘5’, ‘6’, ‘7’, ‘8’, and ‘9’.
• Strings begin with the character’-’ and the reset string contains only the ASCII digits.
• Strings begin with the character’+’ and the reset string contains only the ASCII digits.

The function will read the characters one by one and if till the end it does not find any digit it will return 0. Otherwise, it will return the number found before the occurrence of the first non-ASCII value.

### Examples of atoi() Function in C

Below are the examples of the atoi function in C.

Example 1 of atoi() Function in C
In this example, we will see the example of two strings one containing the ASCII digits and one not.

Code Implementation

```#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
int main()
{
int val;
char s1[20] = "12345";
val = atoi(s1);
printf("String value = %s\n", s1);
printf("Integer value = %d\n", val);
char s2[] = "PrepBytes";
val = atoi(s2);
printf("String value = %s\n", s2);

}```

Output

``````String value = 12345
Integer value = 12345
String value = PrepBytes
Integer value = 0``````

Explanation of the above example
In the above example we have two strings with s1 and s2. S1 contains the ASCII digits hence it shows the string and corresponding integer value and for the other string it will show the string and as it is non-ASCII so it will show 0.

Example 2 of atoi() Function in C
In this example, we will discuss the code implementation of other examples of the atoi function in c.

Code Implementation

```#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
int main()
{
int val;
char s1[20] = "-4568";
val = atoi(s1);
printf("String value = %s\n", s1);
printf("Integer value = %d\n", val);
char s2[] = "1235xyz";
val = atoi(s2);
printf("String value = %s\n", s2);
printf("Integer value = %d\n", val);

return (0);
}```

Output

``````String value = -4568
Integer value = -4568
String value = 1235xyz
Integer value = 1235``````

Explanation of the above example
In the above example we first have a string with ‘-’ sign and the second string contains the ASCII digits and non-ASCII digits hence it returns the value in the value in the first and the value of the second string before the characters.

### Applications of the atoi() Function in C

Below, we have discussed some of the applications of the atoi function in c.

• It is very helpful in cases when we have to validate the input as sometimes we need to change the input from string to an integer.
• It is used for command line arguments allowing the program to perform the desired operation.
• It is used in data processing as we have to convert the data into its numerical form to analyze it.

Conclusion
In conclusion, the atoi() function in C serves as a valuable utility for converting ASCII strings to integer values. Its simplicity makes it a popular choice for basic string-to-integer conversions, but programmers must exercise caution regarding error handling and edge cases. While the atoi() function is a convenient tool, it is essential to be aware of its limitations and consider alternative functions or additional validation mechanisms for more robust string-to-integer conversions in C programming.

## Frequently Asked Questions related to atoi Function in C

Here are some of the frequently asked questions about the atoi function in c.

Q1: What is the purpose of the atoi() function in C?
A1:
The atoi() function in C is designed to convert ASCII strings representing numeric values into their corresponding integer representations. It is often used when extracting numerical data from user input or external sources stored as strings.

Q2: Are there any limitations to the atoi() function?
A2:
Yes, the atoi() function has limitations. It does not handle errors well, and if the input string is not a valid integer representation, the function returns zero. Additionally, it does not distinguish between a valid zero and an error condition.

Q3: How does the atoi() function handle leading white spaces in the input string?
A3:
The atoi() function skips leading white spaces in the input string before attempting the conversion. It starts the conversion process once it encounters the first non-white space character.

Q4: Are there alternative functions to atoi() for string-to-integer conversions in C?
A4:
Yes, C provides alternative functions like strtol() (String to Long) that offer more comprehensive error handling and allow better detection of conversion failures. Programmers may choose these alternatives based on the specific requirements of their applications.

Q5: Can the atoi() function handle non-integer input, such as floating-point numbers?
A5:
No, the atoi() function is specifically designed for converting strings representing integers. If non-integer input, including floating-point numbers, needs to be converted, other functions like atof() (ASCII to Float) should be used for accurate results.