Last Updated on April 20, 2023 by Prepbytes
Understanding the differences between C and Java is important because it allows programmers to choose the most appropriate language for a given project based on factors like performance, platform independence, memory management, and available libraries.
What is C Language?
The C is a general-purpose, procedural programming language that was developed in the 1970s by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs. It is a low-level language that provides direct access to hardware resources and is highly efficient. C has a simple syntax and a small standard library, making it a flexible language that can be used for a wide range of applications, including operating systems, embedded systems, and high-performance applications. C is known for its speed, portability, and ability to perform low-level operations, but requires manual memory management and can be more difficult to learn than some higher-level languages. Basically, C language was developed to construct utilities running on UNIX and was applied to re-implement the kernel of the UNIX operating system. C language is also known as a middle-level language as it combines the features of both high-level languages and low-level languages.
Key Features of C Language
Let us now take a look at some of the key features of C language:
- C language is a structured programming language.
- C language is an efficient programming language because it is fast and performs well.
- C language is modular and statically typed.
- C language is a Portable and extensible programming language.
- C language is easy to learn.
What is Java?
Java is an object-oriented programming language that was developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which is now acquired by Oracle, In today’s time, Java is one of the most diverse languages.
Java is used by hundreds of Software Companies and millions of developers all around the globe, Java has become the most popular language which is used to build software applications to solve real-world problems. Java is designed to be easy to learn and use, with a syntax that is similar to C++, but with built-in support for features like garbage collection, multithreading, and network programming. Java code is compiled into bytecode, which can be run on any platform with a Java Virtual Machine. Java programming language is a high-level object-oriented programming language designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Key Features of Java Programming Language
Here are the important features of the Java language.
- Java programming language is designed to build object-oriented applications.
- Java is a multithreaded language with automatic memory management.
- In java, there is a feature called WORA i.e. write once run anywhere after compilation.
- Java code can be run on any computing platform.
Difference between C and Java
In programming language, there are some of the difference between c language and java:
|Comparison Basic||C Language||Java|
|Developed By||C language was developed by Dennis M. Ritchie in 1972.||Java programming the language was developed by James gosling and now it is owned by oracle.|
|Paradigm||C language is a structured programming language.||Java is an object-oriented programming language.|
|Language level||C language is a middle-level language||Java is a high-level language.|
|Platform dependency||C language is platform dependent i.e. Write once compile anywhere||Java programming is a platform independent i.e. write once run anywhere.|
|Keywords||In C language, there are 32 keywords.||In java programming, there are 50 keywords.|
|Approach||C language follows a top-down approach to design the application.||Java programming follows a bottom-up approach to designing the application.|
|Compilation and Interpretation||C language is only compiled not interpreted.||Java programming is both compiled as well as interpreted.|
|Pointers||C language supports pointers.||Java programming does not support pointers.|
|Memory allocation||In C language functions like malloc(), calloc(), etc. is used for memory allocation.||In java programming, the new keyword will be used for memory allocation.|
|Call by value/call by reference||C programming supports both call by value as well as call by reference.||Java programming supports only call by value.|
|Security||C language is less secure as compared to java.||Java is more secure than C language.|
|File extension||C codes are stored with .c file extension.||Java codes are stored with .java file extension.|
|Portability||C language is not portable.||Java programming is portable.|
|Robustness||C language is not robust.||Java programming is robust as it has strong memory management schemes.|
Applications of C Language
Some important applications of C language are given below:
- C language can be learned to build programming skills.
- C language is used for compiler production.
- C programming language is used in embedded systems.
- It is used in developing operating systems.
- Also used for developing browsers and their extensions.
Applications of Java Programming Language
Below is the important applications of java programming
- Java is used in big data analytics.
- It is used in software development.
- Also java programming is used for server-side technologies.
- Building mobile applications using Android SDK and Java.
- Developing scientific and mathematical applications using the Java Math library.
Advantages of C Language
Here are the advantages of C language:
- C code can be compiled to run on different platforms.
- C provides a wide range of data types and operators.
- C has a simple syntax that is easy to understand, making it a good language for beginners to learn.
- C has efficient memory management and low-level operations.
- The speed of compilation of a program is faster in C language.
- The program code is secure in C language.
- C language is a procedure-oriented language.
- The program of C language can easily run on another computer.
- C language is the most powerful and efficient.
Disadvantages of C Language
- C language does not support concept of OOP’s.
- In C language the errors and bugs are detected after each line of code.
- C language does not allow a variable with same name.
- C does not provide built-in security features
- C does not provide built-in support for object-oriented programming concepts.
- C does not provide built-in exception-handling mechanisms to handle errors and exceptions.
- C code that is not properly written and compiled for different platforms can lead to non-portable code.
Advantages of Java
Below are some advantages of using Java
- Java code can run on any platform that supports the Java Virtual Machine (JVM).
- Java’s syntax is simple and easy to understand, which makes it a good language for beginners to learn.
- Java is widely used in various industries, including finance, healthcare, and e-commerce, making it a valuable skill for developers to have.
- JIT compiler optimizes code at runtime, which can result in fast and efficient code execution.
- In Java programming, detailed documentation is available.
- Java gives a large pool of skilled developers.
- Java allows the user to form standard programs and reusable code.
- Java has a feature of a multi-threaded environment that allows you to perform many tasks at the same time in a program.
Disadvantage of Java
Below are some disadvantages of using Java
- Java’s object-oriented approach and built-in libraries can result in higher memory usage.
- Java requires a JVM to run, which can increase system requirements and make deployment more complex.
- Java has limited support for functional programming concepts like lambda expressions and closures compared to other modern languages.
- Java’s focus on platform independence can make it challenging to write hardware-oriented programs.
- Some Java libraries and frameworks require commercial licenses, which can increase development costs.
- Just in time (JIT) compiler makes the program comparatively slow.
- In java hardware cost increases due to high memory and processing requirements.
- Java programming does not provide support for low-level programming constructs like pointers.
- User don’t have any control over garbage collection in java as java does not offer functions like delete(), free().
In conclusion, the C and Java difference are shown above. C is a low-level language that provides direct access to hardware resources and is highly efficient but requires manual memory management and lacks many modern features. Java, on the other hand, is a high-level language that provides platform independence, automatic memory management, and a large standard library, but can be slower and has a steeper learning curve.
FAQs related to C and Java Programming Language
1. Is java based on C?
Yes, the syntax of java is totally based on C and C++.
2. Why C language is still in use?
C language is still important today because of its high probability, predictable resources utilization and the relationship with hardware.
As C is the best for low-level language used for creating operating systems, extensions, and many more.
3. Which is more difficult to learn Java or C?
Talking about small programs, C language is easy to understand and use. But when it comes to developing, java is more suitable because of their libraries files etc.
4. What is the main difference between c language and Java?
The main difference between c language and java is that C is a low-level programming language that provides direct access to hardware resources, while Java is a high-level language that provides platform independence, automatic memory management, and a large standard library.
5. Which language is faster C or Java?
C is generally faster than Java because it is a low-level language that provides direct access to hardware resources and requires less overhead. Java’s automatic memory management and platform independence come at the cost of slower performance.
6. Which language is more suitable for system programming, C or Java?
C is more suitable for system programming because it provides direct access to hardware resources and can perform low-level operations, while Java is more suitable for applications that require platform independence, automatic memory management, and a large standard library.
7. Which language is easier to learn C or Java?
Java is generally considered easier to learn than C because it has a simpler syntax, automatic memory management, and a large standard library. C’s low-level programming concepts and manual memory management can make it more challenging for beginners.
8. Which language is better for developing large software systems, C or Java?
Java is generally better for developing large software systems because it provides platform independence, automatic memory management, a large standard library, and can be easily integrated with other languages and libraries. C’s low-level programming concepts and lack of built-in features can make it more challenging to develop and maintain large software systems.