Difference between C and Java Language


In this article, we’ll discuss the difference between C and Java Programming languages. C language is one of the oldest languages whereas java is the most diverse language because of its features and robustness. So let’s first understand both these languages one at a time then we’ll see the difference between C and Java.

What is C Langauge?

C language is one of the oldest general-purpose programming languages of all time, it was developed at Bell Labs by Dennis Ritchie between the years 1972 and 1973. Basically, C language was developed to construct utilities running on UNIX and was applied to re-implement the kernel of the UNIX operating system.
C language is also known as a middle-level language as it combines the features of both high-level languages and low-level languages.

Key features of C language are:

Let us now take a look at some of the key features of C language:

  • C language is a structured programming language.
  • C language is an efficient programming language because it is fast and performs well.
  • C language is modular and statically typed.
  • C language is a Portable and extensible programming language.
  • C language is easy to learn.

What is Java?

Java is an object-oriented programming language that was developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems, which is now acquired by Oracle, In today’s time, Java is one of the most diverse languages.
Java is used by hundreds of Software Companies and millions of developers all around the globe, Java has become the most popular language which is used to build software applications to solve real-world problems.
Java programming language is a high-level object-oriented programming language designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.

Key features of Java programming language:

Here are the important features of the Java language.

  • Java programming language is designed to build object-oriented applications.
  • Java is a multithreaded language with automatic memory management.
  • In java, there is a feature called WORA i.e. write once run anywhere after compilation.
  • Java code can be run on any computing platform.

Difference between C and java Language

Comparison Basic C Language Java
Developed By C language was developed by Dennis M. Ritchie in 1972. Java programming the language was developed by James gosling and now it is owned by oracle.
Paradigm C language is a structured programming language. Java is an object-oriented programming language.
Language level C language is a middle-level language Java is a high-level language.
Platform dependency C language is platform dependent i.e. Write once compile anywhere Java programming is a platform independent i.e. write once run anywhere.
Keywords In C language, there are 32 keywords. In java programming, there are 50 keywords.
Approach C language follows a top-down approach to design the application. Java programming follows a bottom-up approach to designing the application.
Compilation and Interpretation C language is only compiled not interpreted. Java programming is both compiled as well as interpreted.
Pointers C language supports pointers. Java programming does not support pointers.
Memory allocation In C language functions like malloc(), calloc(), etc. is used for memory allocation. In java programming, the new keyword will be used for memory allocation.
Call by value/call by reference C programming supports both call by value as well as call by reference. Java programming supports only call by value.
Security C language is less secure as compared to java. Java is more secure than C language.
File extension C codes are stored with .c file extension. Java codes are stored with .java file extension.
Portability C language is not portable. Java programming is portable.
Robustness C language is not robust. Java programming is robust as it has strong memory management schemes.

Applications of C language:

Some important applications of C language are given below:

  • C language can be learned to build programming skills.
  • C language is used for compiler production.
  • C programming language is used in embedded systems.
  • It is used in developing operating systems.
  • Also used for developing browsers and their extensions.

Applications of Java programming language:

Below is the important applications of java programming

  • Java programming is used for android applications.
  • Java is used in big data analytics.
  • It is used in software development.
  • Also java programming is used for server-side technologies.

Advantages of C language:

Discuss below are some pros or benefits of C language.

  • The speed of compilation of a program is faster in C language.
  • The program code is secure in C language.
  • C language is a procedure oriented language.
  • The program of C language can easily run on another computers.
  • C language is most powerful and efficient.

Disadvantages of C language:

  • C language does not support concept of OOP’s.
  • In C language the errors and bugs are detected after each line of code.
  • C language does not allow a variable with same name.
  • C doesn’t have the concept of namespace, constructor, and destructor.

Advantages of Java

Below are some advantages of using Java

  • In java programming, detailed documentation is available.
  • Java gives a large pool of skilled developers.
  • Java allows the user to form standard programs and reusable code.
  • Java has a feature of multi-threaded environment that allows you to perform many tasks at the same time in a program.
  • In Java, the performance is excellent.

Disadvantage of Java

Below are some disadvantages of using Java

  • Just in time (JIT) compiler makes the program comparatively slow.
  • In java hardware cost increases due to high memory and processing requirements.

  • Java programming does not provide support for low-level programming constructs like pointers.

  • User don’t have any control over garbage collection in java as java does not offer functions like delete(), free().

FAQs related to C and Java programming language:

  1. Is java based on C?
    Yes, the syntax of java is totally based on C and C++.

  2. Why C language is still in use?
    C language is still important today because of its high probability, predictable resources utilization and the relationship with hardware.
    As C is the best for low-level language used for creating operating systems, extensions, and many more.

  3. Which is more difficult to learn Java or C?
    Talking about small programs, C language is easy to understand and use. But when it comes to developing, java is more suitable because of their libraries files etc.

This basically completes the general difference between C and java programming languages. Summarizing the facts, of both languages are extremely useful. Basically, C language is proven to be a better choice for programming faster than java.

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