Last Updated on July 20, 2023 by Mayank Dham
In the world of digital electronics, microprocessors have revolutionized the way we perceive computing. Among the pioneers in this domain, the 8085 microprocessor stands as a key milestone that sparked a new era of computing. Widely adopted for its versatility and efficiency, the 8085 microprocessor played a significant role in the development of early computer systems.
At its core, the 8085 microprocessor is a powerful integrated circuit that acts as the brain of a computer system, orchestrating the execution of instructions and controlling various components. Understanding its pin diagram is crucial for anyone seeking to comprehend the internal workings of this remarkable piece of technology.
Pin Diagram of 8085 Microprocessor
40 pins are arranged in seven categories on the 8085 microprocessor’s pin diagram: the address bus, the data bus, the control signals and status signals, the power supply and frequency, the reset signals, the DMA signals, and the serial input/output ports. These pins serve specific functions and play a crucial role in facilitating communication, data transfer, and control within the microprocessor.
1) Address Bus and Data Bus
The address bus contains sixteen lines, numbered A0-A15. The address bus is unidirectional, which implies that bits flow in only one direction from the microprocessor unit to the peripheral devices, and it utilizes the high-order address bus.
2) Control and Status Signals
These signals are used to determine the type of operation being performed. There are three control and three status signals.
RD, WR, and ALE are the three control signals.
RD indicates that the selected IO or memory device is to be read and is ready to accept data from the data bus.
WR This signal indicates that the data on the data bus is about to be written into a specific memory or IO location.
ALE is a positive going pulse generated by the microprocessor when a new operation is initiated. When the pulse becomes high, it denotes the address. When the pulse falls, it indicates that data has been received.
3) Power Supply and Clock Frequency
These are 2 power supply:
Vcc Power supply +5v
Vss Ground Reference
There are 3 clocks signal
XI, X2 – These two pins are connected to a crystal. Because the frequency is internally divided by two, a system operating at 3MHZ requires a crystal with a frequency of 6MHZ.
CLK (OUT) – This signal can be used by other devices as the system clock.
4) Interrupts and Peripheral Initiated Signals
The 8085 has five interrupt signals that can be used to stop the execution of a program.
INTR I (ii) RST 7.5 (iii) RST 6.5 (iv) RST 5.5 (v) TRAP
The INTA signal is used by the microprocessor to acknowledge Interrupt Request. There are three externally initiated signals in addition to Interrupts: RESET, HOLD, and READY. It has one signal called HLDA that responds to HOLD requests.
INTR stands for interrupt request.
INTA’ – A microprocessor interrupt acknowledgment sent after INTR is received.
5) Reset Signals
RESET IN -When the signal on this pin is low(0), the program counter is reset, the buses are tri-stated, and the microprocessor unit is reset.
RESET OUT – Indicates that the MPU is being reset. Other devices can be reset using the signal.
6) DMA Signals
HOLD – This indicates that another device wants to use the address and data bus. When a HOLD request is received, the microprocessor relinquishes the use of the buses as soon as the current machine cycle is completed. Internal processing may be resumed. The processor regains bus access after the HOLD signal is removed.
HLDA – This is a signal that indicates that a HOLD request has been received. When a HOLD request is removed, the HLDA goes low.
7) Serial I/O Ports:
There are two serial signals, SID and SOD, that are used for serial communication.
SOD (Serial output data line) The SIM instruction sets/resets the output SOD.
SID (Serial input data line): When a RIM instruction is executed, the data on this line is loaded into the accumulator.
Advantages for Pin Diagram of 8085 Microprocessor
- Clear Identification of Pins: The pin diagram provides a clear identification and labeling of each pin on the microprocessor. This enables easy reference and avoids confusion when connecting external devices or designing circuits.
- Pin Functionality: The pin diagram helps in understanding the specific functionality of each pin. It provides insights into the purpose and role of each pin, such as address/data bus lines, control signals, interrupt lines, clock input, and power supply.
- Communication with External Devices: The pin diagram illustrates the pins involved in communication with external devices, such as memory, input/output devices, and interrupt sources. This aids in establishing proper connections and configuring the microprocessor for data transfer and control.
- Interrupt Handling: The pin diagram highlights the interrupt-related pins, including interrupt request lines and restart lines. This facilitates the implementation of interrupt-driven routines and enables efficient handling of interrupts from external sources.
- Addressing and Data Transfer: By examining the pin diagram, one can identify the pins responsible for addressing (address bus) and data transfer (data bus). This knowledge is essential for programming and accessing memory locations or I/O ports accurately.
- Clock and Timing Signals: The pin diagram indicates the pins associated with the clock signal, such as the clock input pin (CLK) and the Address Latch Enable (ALE) pin. Understanding these pins aids in synchronizing the microprocessor’s operations and managing timing requirements.
- System Design and Troubleshooting: The pin diagram serves as a reference for system designers and troubleshooters. It helps them verify connections, identify potential issues, and debug problems related to pin assignments, signal paths, and external interfaces.
- Documentation Interpretation: When referring to technical documentation or datasheets, a familiarity with the pin diagram allows for easier interpretation and understanding of the information provided. It facilitates comprehension of signal names, electrical characteristics, and timing specifications mentioned in the documentation.
Disadvantages for Pin Diagram of 8085 Microprocessor
- Limited Information: The pin diagram alone provides a visual representation of the physical layout and pin assignments but does not provide detailed information about the internal architecture, data paths, or microarchitecture of the microprocessor. To gain a deeper understanding, additional documentation and resources are required.
- Lack of Contextual Information: The pin diagram does not provide contextual information or explanations regarding the functionality and purpose of each pin. It simply labels the pins without elaborating on their specific roles or how they interact with other components of the microprocessor.
- Incomplete Description: The pin diagram may not provide a comprehensive description of all the features and capabilities of the microprocessor. It may omit certain details or aspects that are crucial for understanding and utilizing the microprocessor effectively.
- Insufficient Electrical Characteristics: The pin diagram typically does not provide detailed electrical characteristics such as voltage levels, current ratings, input/output timings, or impedance requirements for each pin. This information is crucial for proper circuit design and interfacing with external devices.
- Limited Troubleshooting Assistance: While the pin diagram can be helpful in identifying potential connectivity issues, it does not provide specific guidance or troubleshooting tips for resolving problems that may arise during system integration or operation. Additional resources and documentation are necessary for effective troubleshooting.
- Lack of Updates: The pin diagram represents the microprocessor’s design and features at a specific point in time. As newer revisions or versions of the microprocessor are released, the pin diagram may become outdated and not accurately represent the latest enhancements or changes.
In conclusion, the pin diagram of the 8085 microprocessor serves as a valuable visual representation of the physical layout and pin assignments of the chip. It plays a crucial role in understanding the microprocessor’s functionalities, communication with external devices, data transfer mechanisms, and control signals. By studying the pin diagram, engineers, students, and electronics enthusiasts can gain insights into how the microprocessor operates and design efficient systems around it. However, it is important to note that the pin diagram alone may not provide a complete understanding of the microprocessor’s internal architecture, timing characteristics, or troubleshooting guidelines. Additional resources and documentation should be consulted to gain a comprehensive knowledge of the 8085 microprocessor.
Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)
Here are the FAQs on the Pin diagram of 8085 microprocessor.
Q1: What is the purpose of the address bus in the 8085 microprocessor?
A: The address bus is used to transfer memory addresses to the memory or input/output devices. The address bus consists of 16 lines in the 8085 microprocessor, which allows it to access up to 64KB of memory.
Q2: What is the purpose of the data bus in the 8085 microprocessor?
A: The data bus is used to transfer data between the microprocessor and memory or input/output devices. The data bus consists of 8 lines in the 8085 microprocessor, which allows it to transfer 8 bits of data at a time.
Q3: What is the purpose of the control signals in the 8085 microprocessor?
A: The control signals are used to control the timing and sequencing of operations in the microprocessor. These signals include Read/Write (R/W), Clock (CLK), Interrupt Request (INTR), and Reset (RESET), among others.
Q4: What is the purpose of the status signals in the 8085 microprocessor?
A: The status signals are used to indicate the status of the microprocessor during different phases of its operation. These signals include S0 and S1, which provide information about the current machine cycle.
Q5: What is the purpose of the Interrupt Request (INTR) pin in the 8085 microprocessor?
A: The Interrupt Request (INTR) pin is used to request the microprocessor to stop its current operation and service an interrupt request from an external device.
Q6: What is the purpose of the Ready (READY) pin in the 8085 microprocessor?
A: The Ready (READY) pin is used to synchronize the operation of the microprocessor with the external memory or input/output devices.