Last Updated on April 28, 2023 by Prepbytes
In today’s digital world, web, and mobile applications have become an essential part of our daily lives. Creating web and mobile applications requires expertise in various technologies and programming languages. However, with the advent of MERN Stack, developers can create full-stack applications using a single programming language. MERN Stack has gained popularity among developers due to its simplicity and ease of use. In this article, we will explore MERN Stack, components of MERN Stack, advantages of MERN Stack, and its working.
What is MERN Stack?
MERN Stack is a popular open-source technology stack used for building web applications. It is a combination of four powerful technologies that work together to provide an end-to-end solution for building scalable and efficient web applications. The four technologies are MongoDB, Express, React, and Node.js.
- MongoDB: MongoDB is a NoSQL database that stores data in a flexible and scalable JSON-like format. It is a popular choice for web developers because of its flexibility and scalability.
- Express: Express is a web application framework for Node.js. It is a powerful tool that simplifies the process of building server-side applications. It provides a wide range of features, such as routing, middleware, and templates.
Why We Should Consider Using MERN Stack for Web Applications?
There are several reasons why we should consider using MERN Stack for building web applications:
- Efficiency: MERN Stack allows developers to reuse code for both frontend and backend development, making the development process more efficient. This is because React and Node.js use similar syntax, and the code can be easily shared between them.
- Scalability: MERN Stack applications are highly scalable due to the use of Node.js and MongoDB. Node.js is an event-driven, non-blocking I/O platform that can handle a large number of requests, while MongoDB can handle large amounts of data.
- Flexibility: MERN Stack provides flexibility in terms of development and deployment. Developers can use any front-end library or framework with MERN Stack, and it can be deployed on any cloud platform or server.
- Large Community: MERN Stack has a large and active community of developers who contribute to its development and support. This means that developers can find solutions to their problems quickly and easily.
- Faster development: MERN Stack provides a set of pre-built components that can be easily integrated into web applications. This speeds up the development process and enables developers to focus on building the core features of the application.
Architectural Structure of MERN Stack and its working?
The three levels that make up MERN’s three-tier architecture scheme are as follows:
- Web as front-end tier
- Server as the middle tier
- Database as backend tier
We already know that it comprises 4 components, i.e., MongoDB, Express.js, React, and Node.js.
Let’s examine these three stages that were discussed before in greater detail:
- Database as backend tier – A database’s primary function is to store all the data relevant to your application, such as content, statistics, information, user profiles, comments, and so on. It is one of the most crucial tiers of the MERN Stack and is mostly managed by MongoDB. All of the data is primarily stored for security reasons. It keeps an accurate record that typically gives the user their data back when needed. The database is where the data is mostly kept. In order to be able to recover the precise information or data that the user earlier desired when the system fails, it produces two or more replica files of the data. It suggests that MongoDB is not based on the relational database structure that resembles a table. However, it offers a completely unique system for the retrieval and storage of data. The most well-known open-source document-oriented NoSQL (NoSQL or Non-Structured Query Language) database is MongoDB. NoSQL refers to a non-relational database that may hold the required data without a set structure or appropriate relational tables. Instead of storing data in relational tables with rows and columns, MongoDB saves data in a different structure.
Major Components of MERN Stack
Let’s examine each of the four technologies or elements that make up the MERN Stack one at a time.
I. MongoDB –
- The most well-known open-source document-oriented NoSQL (NoSQL or Non-Structured Query Language) database is Mongo DB.
- NoSQL refers to a non-relational database that may hold the required data without a set structure or appropriate relational tables. Instead of storing data in relational tables with rows and columns, MongoDB saves data in a different structure.
- It suggests that MongoDB is not based on the relational database structure that resembles a table. However, it offers a completely unique system for the retrieval and storage of data.
- When storing documents in collections, MongoDB use BSON.
- A very adaptable and scalable document structure is possible.
- It is significantly quicker than RDBMS because of its effective indexing and storing methods.
- MongoDB cannot support complicated transactions since sophisticated join operations are not supported by it.
- It is structured as any stored data that is kept in a different document.
- In contrast to RDBMS (Relational Database Management System), where tables have a specific relationship between them, MongoDB has no idea of relationships or table structures.
- Additionally, it offers a swift document model creation process for any developer.
- One of the key categories of NoSQL databases is MongoDB. If we see that it will hit its scaling limit everytime a database operates on a single server, it is more scalable and offers outstanding performance.
- With its adaptable document architecture, MongoDB, a NoSQL database, boosts productivity. It scales by adding more and more servers.
- It gives the developer a platform on which to build and manage reliable servers.
- Express is used to rapidly and simply create online and mobile apps.
- Express is widely used because it can supply server-side logic for both mobile and web apps.
- It makes it considerably simpler and easier for developers to set up reliable APIs (application programming interfaces) and web servers.
- Express uses routing and middleware to make it simpler for powerful web servers to arrange the functionality of your application.
- Additionally, it gives Node.js HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) objects useful new features.
- It is a crucial part of the MERN and MEAN stack and is employed to create quick, reliable, and production-ready online applications.
- It is employed to create user interfaces, particularly for one-page online applications.
- React is also used in web and mobile apps to take control of the view layer.
- We can produce reusable UI (User Interface) components thanks to it.
- Jordan Walke, a Facebook software developer, was the one who initially invented it.
- Facebook’s news feed was where React first saw use.
- Large web applications that may readily update the data on the page even without refreshing the page are made possible by this.
- Reacting’s major goal is to solely operate with the application’s user interfaces, whether they are on mobile or online.
- It is scalable, quick, and easy.
- React replaces Angular in the MEAN stack even though there are many other open-source platforms that are used to make front-end web and mobile apps simpler, such as Angular js in MVC. React is now utilized by the majority of developers in the MERN stack, mostly because it is faster and offers more benefits than other front-end frameworks.
- Js is not a framework nor is it a programming language.
- It is frequently employed for creating and developing a variety of backend services, including web and mobile apps.
- It is mostly used in production by large companies like Uber, PayPal, and Netflix. It is a free ASCII text file platform that may be used by anybody.
- It will function on a variety of operating systems, including Windows, Mac, Linux, and Unix.
- It may be used for agile development and prototyping and is extremely easy to get started with.
- It offers people exceptionally rapid and highly ascendable services.
- It may be used as an ASCII text file cleaner and is highly consistent.
- It offers a vast mechanism for any library of ASCII text files.
- It is non-blocking or, alternatively, asynchronous in nature.
Advantages of Using MERN Stack
MERN Stack has several advantages that make it a popular choice for building web applications. Here are some of the advantages of using MERN Stack:
- SEO-friendly: MERN Stack is SEO-friendly as it allows developers to build server-side rendered (SSR) applications. This means that the content of the web application can be crawled and indexed by search engines, which helps improve the search engine ranking of the application.
- Real-time Applications: MERN Stack allows developers to build real-time applications, such as chat applications and social media platforms. This is because it uses web sockets to enable real-time communication between the client and the server.
- Security: MERN Stack provides built-in security features, such as data encryption, user authentication, and authorization. This helps protect the application from cyber-attacks and ensures the security of user data.
- Cost-effective: MERN Stack is cost-effective as it uses open-source technologies, which reduces the cost of development. Moreover, MERN Stack allows developers to reuse the code, which further reduces the development cost.
- Cross-platform Compatibility: MERN Stack applications can run on different platforms, such as Windows, Linux, and Mac. This ensures that the application can be accessed by users on different devices and platforms.
- Easy Integration: MERN Stack allows developers to easily integrate third-party tools and services, such as payment gateways, social media platforms, and analytics tools, into the application. This makes it easier to add new features and functionalities to the application.
- Better User Experience: MERN Stack uses React for building user interfaces, which provide a fast and responsive user experience. React’s component-based architecture allows developers to build complex UI components and reuse them across multiple pages.
List of MERN Stack Projects
Here are some of the top MERN Stack projects that have gained popularity:
- An App for Messaging
- An application that uses APIs as input.
- Web-based software for maintaining a blog’s content
- App for grocery delivery
- A service for delivering food
- A platform for creating custom logos.
- An Internet-based platform for therapy and guidance
- Solution for reporting wrongdoing in real-time
- All-in-one app for all of your travel needs.
In conclusion, MERN Stack is a powerful and popular technology stack for building modern and scalable web applications. It consists of four major components: MongoDB, Express.js, React, and Node.js. MERN Stack provides a range of advantages, including ease of learning, cross-platform compatibility, real-time capabilities, and cost-effectiveness. Moreover, it is backed by a strong developer community and has a wide range of pre-built components that make development faster and easier.
FAQs on MERN Stack
Here are some frequently asked questions on MERN Stack.
Q1: Can MERN Stack handle large-scale web applications?
Ans: Yes, MERN Stack is designed to handle large-scale web applications, thanks to its scalable architecture and powerful database management capabilities.
Q2: Does MERN Stack support multithreading?
Q3: Can MERN Stack be used for building mobile applications?
Ans: MERN Stack is primarily designed for building web applications, but it can be used for building mobile applications using technologies like React Native.
Q4: Does MERN Stack provide support for real-time collaboration?
Ans: Yes, MERN Stack provides support for real-time collaboration through the use of technologies like Socket.io and WebSockets.
Q5: Is MERN Stack a good choice for building enterprise-level applications?
Ans: Yes, MERN Stack is a good choice for building enterprise-level applications due to its scalability, security, and support for cloud-based deployment.
Q6: Can MERN Stack handle complex database queries?
Ans: Yes, MERN Stack can handle complex database queries through the use of MongoDB’s powerful query language and indexing capabilities.
Q7: Does MERN Stack offer any performance optimizations?
Ans: Yes, MERN Stack offers several performance optimizations, such as server-side rendering and code splitting, which can significantly improve application performance.
Q8: Can MERN Stack applications be easily deployed to the cloud?
Ans: Yes, MERN Stack applications can be easily deployed to the cloud using services like AWS, Heroku, and DigitalOcean