Last Updated on April 24, 2023 by Prepbytes
Process states in operating system are a way to manage resources efficiently by keeping track of the current state of each process, such as running, ready, blocked, or terminated, and allocating resources accordingly.
What are the Process States in Operating System?
There are several process states in operating system, they are:
- New State: When a process is first created or is initialized by the operating system, it is in the new state. In this state, the process is being prepared to enter the ready state.
- Ready State: When a process is ready to execute, it is in the ready state. In this state, the process is waiting for the CPU to be allocated to it so that it can start executing its instructions. A process can remain in the ready state for an indeterminate period, waiting for the CPU to become available.
- Running State: When the CPU is allocated to a process, it enters the running state. In this state, the process executes its instructions and uses system resources such as memory, CPU, and I/O devices. Only one process can be in the running state at a time, and the operating system determines which process gets access to the CPU using scheduling algorithms.
- Blocked State: Sometimes, a process needs to wait for a particular event, such as user input or data from a disk drive. In such cases, the process enters the blocked state. In this state, the process is not using the CPU, but it is not ready to run either. The process remains in the blocked state until the event it is waiting for occurs.
- Terminated State: The terminated state is reached when a process completes its execution or terminates by the operating system. In this state, the process no longer uses any system resources, and its memory space is deallocated.
- Suspended State: When a process is temporarily removed from the main memory and is stored on the disk to free up memory, it is said to be in a suspended state. The process is not actively executing, and its memory space is saved on the disk. When the process is needed again, it is loaded back into the main memory and resumes execution.
Operations on Process States in Operating System
Here, are the operations on process states in operating system:
- Creating: This process refers to the operation of starting a new process in an operating system. During the process creation, the operating system allocates resources such as memory, CPU time, and I/O devices to the process.
- Execution: This refers to the operation of running a process on the CPU. When a process is executed, the CPU loads the process code and executes it in memory.
- Scheduling: It refers to the process of determining which process will run on the CPU at a given time. The order in which operations are carried out is decided by the operating system using a variety of scheduling methods.
- Deletion: It refers to the operation of terminating a process in an operating system. When a process is deleted, the operating system releases the resources allocated to the process and marks the memory used by the process as free.
Features of Process States in Operating System
There are several features of the process states in operating system:
- Suspended State: A process may be suspended or put on hold, which means that it is not currently active and cannot execute any instructions. This may be done to free up system resources, prioritize other processes, or perform some system maintenance tasks.
- Priority: Each process is assigned a priority level that determines its position in the scheduling queue. Processes with a higher priority receive more CPU time than those with a lower priority.
- Context Switching: When a process is interrupted and another process is scheduled to run, the system must save the context of the current process, including its register values, program counter, and other relevant data, and restore the context of the new process. This is known as context switching.
- Preemption: Preemption is the act of interrupting a running process in order to schedule a higher-priority process. This ensures that critical processes are given the necessary resources to run and complete in a timely manner.
- Deadlock: A deadlock is a situation where two or more processes are blocked and waiting for resources that are held by other processes. This can lead to a deadlock where none of the processes can proceed.
Advantages of Process States in Operating System
Here, are the advantages of process states in operating system:
- Process states help to allocate resources more efficiently.
- Proper management of process states helps us to prevent crashes and errors.
- Efficient allocation of CPU time ensures a responsive system.
- The process states help us to protect against security threats.
- Monitoring process states help us to identify and troubleshoot issues.
Disadvantages of Process States in Operating System
Here, are the disadvantages of process states in operating system:
- The limited number of processes that can be run simultaneously
- Deadlocks can occur in the process at any time
- Race conditions can cause unpredictable behavior
- The use of process states can increase system complexity
In conclusion, the process states in operating system are used for managing system resources efficiently. The operating system needs to keep track of each process’s current state to allocate CPU time, memory, and I/O resources optimally. Understanding the different process states can help developers and system administrators design and optimize systems to run more efficiently. By managing process states correctly, operating systems can ensure that the system is responsive, stable, and reliable.
Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)
Q1. What do you mean by process states in operating system?
Ans: Process states refer to the different states that a process can be in, such as running, ready, blocked, and terminated.
Q2. Why are process states important in an operating system?
Ans: Process states are important because they help the operating system manage resources efficiently and ensure system stability and responsiveness.
Q3. How does the operating system management process states?
Ans: The operating system uses scheduling algorithms to manage process states, which allocate CPU time, memory, and I/O resources to processes based on their current state.
Q4. What happens when a process is in a blocked state?
Ans: When a process is in the blocked state, it is waiting for a specific event, such as input from the user or data from a disk. The operating system will suspend the process until the event occurs.
Q5. What is the difference between the ready and running states?
Ans: In the ready state, a process is waiting to be allocated CPU time, while in the running state, the process is currently executing on the CPU.
Q6. What is the purpose of the terminated state?
Ans: The terminated state indicates that the process has completed its execution and has been removed from the system.