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# Assignment Operator in Python

Last Updated on June 8, 2023 by Prepbytes

To fully comprehend the assignment operators in Python, it is important to have a basic understanding of what operators are. Operators are utilized to carry out a variety of operations, including mathematical, bitwise, and logical operations, among others, by connecting operands. Operands are the values that are acted upon by operators. In Python, the assignment operator is used to assign a value to a variable. The assignment operator is represented by the equals sign (=), and it is the most commonly used operator in Python. In this article, we will explore the assignment operator in Python, how it works, and its different types.

## What is an Assignment Operator in Python?

The assignment operator in Python is used to assign a value to a variable. The assignment operator is represented by the equals sign (=), and it is used to assign a value to a variable. When an assignment operator is used, the value on the right-hand side is assigned to the variable on the left-hand side. This is a fundamental operation in programming, as it allows developers to store data in variables that can be used throughout their code.

For example, consider the following line of code:

``a = 10``

Explanation: In this case, the value 10 is assigned to the variable a using the assignment operator. The variable a now holds the value 10, and this value can be used in other parts of the code. This simple example illustrates the basic usage and importance of assignment operators in Python programming.

## Types of Assignment Operator in Python

There are several types of assignment operator in Python that are used to perform different operations. Let’s explore each type of assignment operator in Python in detail with the help of some code examples.

### 1. Simple Assignment Operator (=)

The simple assignment operator is the most commonly used operator in Python. It is used to assign a value to a variable. The syntax for the simple assignment operator is:

``variable = value``

Here, the value on the right-hand side of the equals sign is assigned to the variable on the left-hand side. For example

``a = 25``

Explanation: In this case, the value 25 is assigned to the variable a using the simple assignment operator. The variable a now holds the value 25.

### 2. Addition Assignment Operator (+=)

The addition assignment operator is used to add a value to a variable and store the result in the same variable. The syntax for the addition assignment operator is:

``variable += value``

Here, the value on the right-hand side is added to the variable on the left-hand side, and the result is stored back in the variable on the left-hand side. For example

``````a = 10
a += 5
print(a)``````

Explanation: In this case, the value of a is incremented by 5 using the addition assignment operator. The result, 15, is then printed to the console.

### 3. Subtraction Assignment Operator (-=)

The subtraction assignment operator is used to subtract a value from a variable and store the result in the same variable. The syntax for the subtraction assignment operator is

``variable -= value``

Here, the value on the right-hand side is subtracted from the variable on the left-hand side, and the result is stored back in the variable on the left-hand side. For example

``````a = 10
a -= 5
print(a)``````

Explanation: In this case, the value of a is decremented by 5 using the subtraction assignment operator. The result, 5, is then printed to the console.

### 4. Multiplication Assignment Operator (*=)

The multiplication assignment operator is used to multiply a variable by a value and store the result in the same variable. The syntax for the multiplication assignment operator is:

``variable *= value``

Here, the value on the right-hand side is multiplied by the variable on the left-hand side, and the result is stored back in the variable on the left-hand side. For example

``````a = 10
a *= 5
print(a)``````

Explanation: In this case, the value of a is multiplied by 5 using the multiplication assignment operator. The result, 50, is then printed to the console.

### 5. Division Assignment Operator (/=)

The division assignment operator is used to divide a variable by a value and store the result in the same variable. The syntax for the division assignment operator is:

``variable /= value``

Here, the variable on the left-hand side is divided by the value on the right-hand side, and the result is stored back in the variable on the left-hand side. For example

``````a = 10
a /= 5
print(a)``````

Explanation: In this case, the value of a is divided by 5 using the division assignment operator. The result, 2.0, is then printed to the console.

### 6. Modulus Assignment Operator (%=)

The modulus assignment operator is used to find the remainder of the division of a variable by a value and store the result in the same variable. The syntax for the modulus assignment operator is

``variable %= value``

Here, the variable on the left-hand side is divided by the value on the right-hand side, and the remainder is stored back in the variable on the left-hand side. For example

``````a = 10
a %= 3
print(a)``````

Explanation: In this case, the value of a is divided by 3 using the modulus assignment operator. The remainder, 1, is then printed to the console.

### 7. Floor Division Assignment Operator (//=)

The floor division assignment operator is used to divide a variable by a value and round the result down to the nearest integer, and store the result in the same variable. The syntax for the floor division assignment operator is:

``variable //= value``

Here, the variable on the left-hand side is divided by the value on the right-hand side, and the result is rounded down to the nearest integer. The rounded result is then stored back in the variable on the left-hand side. For example

``````a = 10
a //= 3
print(a)``````

Explanation: In this case, the value of a is divided by 3 using the floor division assignment operator. The result, 3, is then printed to the console.

### 8. Exponentiation Assignment Operator (**=)

The exponentiation assignment operator is used to raise a variable to the power of a value and store the result in the same variable. The syntax for the exponentiation assignment operator is:

``variable **= value``

Here, the variable on the left-hand side is raised to the power of the value on the right-hand side, and the result is stored back in the variable on the left-hand side. For example

``````a = 2
a **= 3
print(a)``````

Explanation: In this case, the value of a is raised to the power of 3 using the exponentiation assignment operator. The result, 8, is then printed to the console.

### 9. Bitwise AND Assignment Operator (&=)

The bitwise AND assignment operator is used to perform a bitwise AND operation on the binary representation of a variable and a value, and store the result in the same variable. The syntax for the bitwise AND assignment operator is:

``variable &= value``

Here, the variable on the left-hand side is ANDed with the value on the right-hand side using the bitwise AND operator, and the result is stored back in the variable on the left-hand side. For example,

``````a = 6    # Binary representation of 6 is 110
a &= 3   # Binary representation of 3 is 011
print(a) # Output: 2 (Binary representation of 2 is 010)``````

Explanation: In this case, the value of a is ANDed with 3 using the bitwise AND assignment operator. The result, 2, is then printed to the console.

### 10. Bitwise OR Assignment Operator (|=)

The bitwise OR assignment operator is used to perform a bitwise OR operation on the binary representation of a variable and a value, and store the result in the same variable. The syntax for the bitwise OR assignment operator is:

``variable |= value``

Here, the variable on the left-hand side is ORed with the value on the right-hand side using the bitwise OR operator, and the result is stored back in the variable on the left-hand side. For example,

``````a = 6    # Binary representation of 6 is 110
a |= 3   # Binary representation of 3 is 011
print(a) # Output: 7 (Binary representation of 7 is 111)``````

Explanation: In this case, the value of a is ORed with 3 using the bitwise OR assignment operator. The result, 7, is then printed to the console.

### 11. Bitwise XOR Assignment Operator (^=)

The bitwise XOR assignment operator is used to perform a bitwise XOR operation on the binary representation of a variable and a value, and store the result in the same variable. The syntax for the bitwise XOR assignment operator is:

``variable ^= value``

Here, the variable on the left-hand side is XORed with the value on the right-hand side using the bitwise XOR operator, and the result are stored back in the variable on the left-hand side. For example,

``````a = 6    # Binary representation of 6 is 110
a ^= 3   # Binary representation of 3 is 011
print(a) # Output: 5 (Binary representation of 5 is 101)``````

Explanation: In this case, the value of a is XORed with 3 using the bitwise XOR assignment operator. The result, 5, is then printed to the console.

### 12. Bitwise Right Shift Assignment Operator (>>=)

The bitwise right shift assignment operator is used to shift the bits of a variable to the right by a specified number of positions, and store the result in the same variable. The syntax for the bitwise right shift assignment operator is:

``variable >>= value``

Here, the variable on the left-hand side has its bits shifted to the right by the number of positions specified by the value on the right-hand side, and the result is stored back in the variable on the left-hand side. For example,

``````a = 8    # Binary representation of 8 is 1000
a >>= 2  # Shift 2 positions to the right
print(a) # Output: 2 (Binary representation of 2 is 0010)``````

Explanation: In this case, the value of a is shifted 2 positions to the right using the bitwise right shift assignment operator. The result, 2, is then printed to the console.

### 13. Bitwise Left Shift Assignment Operator (<<=)

The bitwise left shift assignment operator is used to shift the bits of a variable to the left by a specified number of positions, and store the result in the same variable. The syntax for the bitwise left shift assignment operator is:

``variable <<= value``

Here, the variable on the left-hand side has its bits shifted to the left by the number of positions specified by the value on the right-hand side, and the result is stored back in the variable on the left-hand side. For example,

``````a = 1    # Binary representation of 1 is 0001
a <>=, <>=, <>=) shifts the bits of a variable to the right by a specified number of positions and stores the result in the same variable. The bitwise left shift assignment operator (< b) else b" would assign the value of a to x if a is greater than b, otherwise it would assign the value of b to x.``````

Conclusion
Assignment operator in Python is used to assign values to variables, and it comes in different types. The simple assignment operator (=) assigns a value to a variable. The augmented assignment operators (+=, -=, *=, /=, %=, &=, |=, ^=, >>=, <<=) perform a specified operation and assign the result to the same variable in one step. The modulus assignment operator (%) calculates the remainder of a division operation and assigns the result to the same variable. The bitwise assignment operators (&=, |=, ^=, >>=, <<=) perform bitwise operations and assign the result to the same variable. The bitwise right shift assignment operator (>>=) shifts the bits of a variable to the right by a specified number of positions and stores the result in the same variable. The bitwise left shift assignment operator (<<=) shifts the bits of a variable to the left by a specified number of positions and stores the result in the same variable. These operators are useful in simplifying and shortening code that involves assigning and manipulating values in a single step.

## FAQs

Here are some Frequently Asked Questions on Assignment Operator in Python:

Q1 – Can I use the assignment operator to assign multiple values to multiple variables at once?
Ans – Yes, you can use the assignment operator to assign multiple values to multiple variables at once, separated by commas. For example, "x, y, z = 1, 2, 3" would assign the value 1 to x, 2 to y, and 3 to z.

Q2 – Is it possible to chain assignment operators in Python?
Ans – Yes, you can chain assignment operators in Python to perform multiple operations in one line of code. For example, "x = y = z = 1" would assign the value 1 to all three variables.

Q3 – How do I perform a conditional assignment in Python?
Ans – To perform a conditional assignment in Python, you can use the ternary operator. For example, "x = a (if a > b) else b" would assign the value of a to x if a is greater than b, otherwise it would assign the value of b to x.

Q4 – What happens if I use an undefined variable in an assignment operation in Python?
Ans – If you use an undefined variable in an assignment operation in Python, you will get a NameError. Make sure you have defined the variable before trying to assign a value to it.

Q5 – Can I use assignment operators with non-numeric data types in Python?
Ans – Yes, you can use assignment operators with non-numeric data types in Python, such as strings or lists. For example, "my_list += [4, 5, 6]" would append the values 4, 5, and 6 to the end of the list named my_list.