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How to Call a Function in Python

Functions are a fundamental concept in computer programming and are used across a wide variety of programming languages. In general, functions allow programmers to break down their code into smaller, more manageable pieces that can be reused throughout a program. Functions are used in programming to perform specific tasks or calculations, and they can accept inputs (called parameters or arguments) and return values. This makes them highly versatile and adaptable to different programming tasks and scenarios. In this article, we will discuss functions in python,
how to call a function in python, calling a nested function, passing arguments, and handling return values in a function

Function in Python

In Python, a function is a block of code that performs a specific task and can be called multiple times from different parts of a program. Functions play a critical role in writing efficient, modular, and reusable code.

To define a function in Python, use the def keyword followed by the name of the function, a set of parentheses, and a colon. The code block of the function is indented below the definition.

Here is an example of a simple function that takes two arguments and returns their sum:

def add_numbers(a, b):
    sum = a + b
    return sum

result = add_numbers(2, 3)
print(result)

To call a function, simply use its name followed by the arguments in parentheses. Here’s an example of how to call the add_numbers function:

Functions can also have default values for their arguments, which makes them optional. Functions can also return values using the return keyword. This allows the function to pass data back to the calling code.

Function Calling in Python

In Python, a function is a block of code that performs a specific task. Functions can take input, process it, and return output. Now we will discuss how to call a function in python, So To call a function in Python, you simply use the function name followed by parentheses and any necessary arguments or parameters inside the parentheses.

When a function is called, the code inside the function is executed. Any input arguments are passed into the function, and the function can use these arguments to perform its task. If the function returns a value, this can be captured and used in the calling code.

Functions in Python can also have default parameters, which are used if an argument is not specified when the function is called. In addition, named parameters can be used to specify arguments by name, rather than position.

Examples to Call a Function in Python

Here are some examples to call a function in python

Example 1: Calling a Function in Python
In this example we simply define a function and call it

Code Implementation:

def f1():
    return "Welcome in Prepbytes"
print(f1())

Output:

Welcome in Prepbytes

Explanation
In the above python program we simply create a function f1 which return a string and we here call this f1 function in print function which simply print the string which returns by the f1 function

Example 2: Calling Nested Function
We can also create and call nested functions; simply create the nested function within the main function and call it in the main function to execute it.

def mainFunc():
    print("We are in the main function")

    def nestedFunc():
        print("This is nested function ")
    
    nestedFunc()

mainFunc()

Output:

We are in the main function
This is nested function

Explanation
In this example, we are defining the main function as well as a nested function within it. We can simply call the nested function from within the main function definition to execute it.

Example 3: Passing Arguments
In this example, we are passing two numbers, subtracting them, and printing the results.

Code Implementation:

def subtraction(a, b):
    print(a-b)

subtraction(20, 8)

Output

12

Explanation
In this above python program we call the function name subtraction and here we pass the argument (20,8) and we got our answer 8 on the output screen.

Example 4: Handling Return Values
In this example we Instead of printing, we return the subtracted value from the arguments and store it in a variable in this example.

Code Implementation:

def subtraction(a, b):
    return a-b

sub = subtraction(20, 5)
print(sub)

Output:

15

Explanation
In the above python program we instead of printing, we return the subtracted value and store it in a variable so here 20 and 5 gives 15 after subtraction which store in sub variable and after this we simply use the print function to print sub variable

Note: Some Python functions do not have a return value. The inbuilt print() function, for example, has no return value and simply prints the arguments to the Python console.

Summary
To call a function in Python, you simply write the name of the function followed by parentheses, with any required arguments or parameters inside the parentheses.
When the function is called, the code inside the function block is executed. Calling a function in Python involves writing the function name followed by parentheses and any required arguments or parameters. The function code is then executed, and any returned output can be assigned to a variable or printed to the console.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQ)

Q1: What is a function call?
Ans: A function call is a statement that invokes or executes a function, passing arguments if necessary, and then returns control to the calling statement.

Q2: Can a function call another function in Python?
Ans: Yes, a function can call another function in Python. This is called function composition, and it allows you to break complex tasks down into smaller, more manageable pieces.

Q3: What is an argument?
Ans: An argument is a value or variable that is passed to a function when it is called. Arguments can be used to customize the behavior of the function.

Q4: What is a return value?
Ans: A return value is a value that a function returns to the calling statement after it has completed its task. The return value can be used in the calling statement, assigned to a variable, or passed as an argument to another function.

Q5: What is a function signature?
Ans: A function signature is the combination of a function’s name, return type, and parameter list. It specifies the unique characteristics of the function and is used to differentiate it from other functions.

Q6: What is a recursive function?
Ans: A recursive function is a function that calls itself in order to repeat a process or solve a problem. Recursive functions can be useful for tasks that involve repeated operations on data structures or for problems that can be broken down into smaller sub-problems.

Q7: What is a default parameter?
Ans: A default parameter is a parameter that is given a default value in the function signature. If a value is not provided for that parameter when the function is called, the default value will be used instead.

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