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# Python Bitwise Operators

Last Updated on March 15, 2023 by Prepbytes Python is a versatile programming language that offers a wide range of features and functionalities to its users. Among the many tools available to Python developers are python bitwise operators, which allow for the manipulation of binary data in a program. These operators are useful in a variety of applications, from simple mathematical operations to more complex data manipulation tasks. In this article, we will discuss the python bitwise operators, types of python bitwise operators, and some examples of python bitwise operators

## What is a Python Bitwise Operator?

Bitwise operators in Python are used to perform operations on bits of integers. Bitwise operators are used to manipulating the bits of an integer value in binary format. Python provides six bitwise operators that can be used to perform operations on binary numbers. The six bitwise operators are &, |, ^, ~, << and >>. Each of these operators performs a different operation on the binary representation of an integer.

## Types of Python Bitwise Operators:

In Python, there are six bitwise operators that can be used to perform bit-level operations on integers. These operators work by manipulating the individual bits of numbers in binary format. Here are the six types of bitwise operators in Python with examples and explanations:

### 1) Bitwise AND (&)

This operator returns a value where each bit of the result is set to 1 only if the corresponding bits of both operands are 1. Otherwise, the result bit is set to 0. Below we have code implementation and explanation

``````a = 15    # Binary value: 0b1111
b = 10    # Binary value: 0b1010
c = a & b # Binary value: 0b1010 (decimal value: 10)
print(c)``````

Output:

``10``

Explanation:
In this example, the bitwise AND operation of 15 and 10 returns 10 in decimal format.

### 2) Bitwise OR (|):

This operator returns a value where each bit of the result is set to 1 if at least one of the corresponding bits of both operands is 1. Otherwise, the result bit is set to 0. Below we have code implementation and explanation

``````a = 15    # Binary value: 01111
b = 10    # Binary value: 01010
c = a | b # Binary value: 01111 (decimal value: 15)
print(c)``````

Output:

``15``

Explanation:
In this example, the bitwise OR operation of 15 and 10 returns 15 in decimal format.

### 3) Bitwise XOR (^):

This operator returns a value where each bit of the result is set to 1 only if one of the corresponding bits of both operands is 1. Otherwise, the result bit is set to 0. Below we have code implementation and explanation

``````a = 15    # Binary value: 0b1111
b = 10    # Binary value: 0b1010
c = a ^ b # Binary value: 0b0101 (decimal value: 5)
print(c)``````

Output:

``5``

Explanation:
In this example, the bitwise XOR operation of 15 and 10 returns 5 in decimal format.

### 4) Bitwise NOT (~):

This operator returns the complement of the input value. It flips the bits of the operand, i.e., all 0s become 1s, and all 1s become 0s Below we have code implementation and explanation

``````a = 15     # Binary value: 01111
b = ~a     # Binary value: -16
print(b)``````

Output:

``-16``

Explanation:
In this example, the bitwise NOT operation of 15 returns -16 in decimal format because Python represents negative binary numbers using two’s complement notation.

### 5) Bitwise left shift (<<):

This operator shifts the bits of the first operand to the left by the number of positions specified by the second operand. Below we have code implementation and explanation

``````a = 15     # Binary value: 01111
b = a << 2 # Binary value: 0111100 (decimal value: 60)
print(b)``````

Output:

``60``

Explanation:
In this example, the bitwise left shift operation of 15 by 2 positions returns 60 in decimal format.

### 6) Bitwise right shift (>>):

This operator shifts the bits of the first operand to the right by the number of positions specified by the second operand. Below we have code implementation and explanation

``````a = 15     # Binary value: 01111
b = a >> 2 # Binary value: 00011 (decimal value: 3)
print(b)``````

Output:

``3``

Explanation:
In this example, the bitwise right shift operation of 15 by 2 positions returns 3 in decimal format.

These are the six types of python bitwise operators that can be used to perform bit-level operations

## Application of Python Bitwise Operators

Python bitwise operators are used to perform operations on bits of integers. These operators can be used in various applications such as:

• Data Compression: Bitwise operators can be used to compress data by manipulating bits of an integer value. By using bitwise operators such as OR and AND, the number of bits required to store data can be reduced.
• Encryption: Bitwise operators can be used to encrypt data by manipulating bits of an integer value. By using bitwise operators such as XOR, the data can be transformed into a cipher text that is more secure.
• Image Processing: In image processing, bitwise operators are used to manipulate the pixels of an image. By using bitwise operators such as AND, OR, and XOR, different image processing techniques such as masking, blending, and thresholding can be implemented.
• Networking: Bitwise operators can be used in networking applications to manipulate IP addresses and subnet masks. By using bitwise operators such as AND, OR, and XOR, IP addresses and subnet masks can be manipulated to determine network boundaries and to perform IP address filtering.
• Microcontroller Programming: In microcontroller programming, bitwise operators are used to control the operation of hardware peripherals. By using bitwise operators such as OR and AND, the operation of hardware peripherals can be controlled and monitored.
• Graphics Programming: Bitwise operators can be used in graphics programming to manipulate the pixels of an image. By using bitwise operators such as XOR, images can be transformed into a more aesthetically pleasing form.

Summary
Python bitwise operators are used to perform operations on bits of integers. There are six different bitwise operators in Python: AND, OR, XOR, NOT, Left Shift, and Right Shift. These operators can be used in various applications such as data compression, encryption, image processing, networking, microcontroller programming, and graphics programming. By using bitwise operators, developers can manipulate bits of an integer value to perform various operations that can be applied in different domains. Understanding Python bitwise operators can help developers to write more efficient and optimized code.

Here are some FAQs on the python bitwise operators:

Q1: What are the python bitwise operators?
A: There are six bitwise operators in Python: AND, OR, XOR, NOT, Left Shift, and Right Shift.

Q2: What is the purpose of using python bitwise operators ?
A: Bitwise operators are used to perform operations on bits of integers. They can be used in various applications such as data compression, encryption, image processing, networking, microcontroller programming, and graphics programming.

Q3: What is the difference between AND and OR bitwise operators in Python?
A: The AND operator returns 1 if both the bits are 1, otherwise 0. The OR operator returns 1 if at least one of the bits is 1, otherwise 0.

Q4: What is the use of the NOT operator in Python bitwise operations?
A: The NOT operator returns the complement of the binary value. It is used to invert the bits of an integer value.

Q5: How is the Left Shift operator used in Python?
A: The Left Shift operator shifts the bits of the number to the left by the specified number of positions. This operation is equivalent to multiplying the number by 2 raised to the power of the specified number of positions.

Q6: How is the Right Shift operator used in Python?
A: The Right Shift operator shifts the bits of the number to the right by the specified number of positions. This operation is equivalent to dividing the number by 2 raised to the power of the specified number of positions.

Q7: Can bitwise operators be used with floating-point numbers in Python?
A: No, bitwise operators can only be used with integer values in Python. If floating-point numbers are used, they will be converted to integer values before the bitwise operation is performed.

Q8: Are bitwise operators faster than arithmetic operators in Python?
A: Yes, bitwise operators are generally faster than arithmetic operators in Python because they perform operations at the bit level, which is a more efficient way of manipulating data. However, the performance gain may be minimal in some cases.