Last Updated on November 1, 2023 by Ankit Kochar

The round function in Python is a versatile and useful tool for working with numbers. Whether you’re dealing with financial calculations, data analysis, or simply formatting output, the Python round function allows you to control the precision and rounding behavior of numeric values. Understanding how to use round function in Python effectively is crucial for ensuring accurate calculations and presenting results in a user-friendly manner.

In this article, we will explore the Python round function comprehensively. We’ll delve into its syntax, parameters, and practical applications. You’ll learn how to round numbers to a specified number of decimal places, handle ties, and address common rounding issues. By the end of this article, you’ll have a solid grasp of how to leverage the Python round function to achieve precision and consistency in your Python programs.

## What is Python Round Function?

In Python, the round() function is used to round a number to a specified number of decimal places or to the nearest multiple of a specified value. It can be used with both positive and negative numbers. The round() function is often used in mathematical and financial applications where precision is important. Since it’s a built-in Python function, it does not require the import of any modules.

### Syntax of Python Round Function

The syntax for the Python round function is as follows:

`round(number, ndigits)`

### Parameters of Python Round Function

The round() function takes two parameters:

**number (required)**– The number that you want to round. This can be an integer, a floating-point number, or a complex number.**ndigits (optional)**– The number of decimal places to round to. If not specified, it defaults to 0.

### Return Value of Python Round Function

The Python round function returns a floating-point number that represents the rounded value of the input number.

## Examples of Python Round Function

Here are some examples of how to use the Python round function in different contexts:

**Example 1: Basic usage of round()**

In its simplest form, the round() function can be used to round a number to the nearest integer. For example

**Code:**

```
num = 4.6
result = round(num)
print(result)
```

**Output:**

`5`

**Explanation:**

In this example, we have a floating-point number num with the value 4.6. We call the round() function on num and store the result in the variable result. The round() function rounds the number num to the nearest integer, which in this case is 5. The result variable now contains the rounded value.

**Example 2: Rounding to a specified number of decimal places**

The round() function can also be used to round a number to a specified number of decimal places. For example

**Code:**

```
num = 3.14159
result = round(num, 2)
print(result)
```

**Output:**

`3.14`

**Explanation:**

In this example, we have a floating-point number num with the value 3.14159. We call the round() function on num and pass in 2 as the second argument, which specifies that we want to round num to 2 decimal places. The round() function rounds num to 3.14, which is the closest number to num with 2 decimal places. The result variable now contains the rounded value.

**Example 3: Rounding to the nearest multiple**

The round() function can also be used to round a number to the nearest multiple of a specified value. For example

**Code:**

```
num = 17
result = round(num, -1)
print(result)
```

**Output:**

`20`

**Explanation:**

In this example, we have an integer num with the value `17’.We call the round() function on num and pass in -1 as the second argument, which specifies that we want to round num to the nearest multiple of 10. The round() function rounds num to 20, which is the closest multiple of 10 to 17. The result variable now contains the rounded value.

**Example 4: Rounding negative numbers**

The round() function can also be used to round negative numbers. However, the behavior of the round() function with negative numbers can be a bit unexpected. For example

**Code:**

```
num = -4.5
result = round(num)
print(result) # Output: -4
```

**Output:**

`-4`

**Explanation:**

In this example, we have a negative floating-point number num with the value -4.5. We call the round() function on num and store the result in the variable result. The round() function rounds the number num to the nearest integer, which in this case is -4. The result variable now contains the rounded value.

If we had instead rounded num to 1 decimal place:

**Code:**

```
num = -4.5
result = round(num, 1)
print(result)
```

**Output:**

`4.5`

**Explanation:**

In this example, we call the round() function on num and pass in 1 as the second argument, which specifies that we want to round num to 1 decimal place. The round() function rounds num to -4.5, which is the closest number to num with 1 decimal place. The result variable now contains the rounded value.

It’s worth noting that the behavior of the round() function with negative numbers can be different on different platforms and versions of Python. If you need precise control over how negative numbers are rounded, it’s best to use a third-party library like NumPy.

### Precision Loss

One important thing to keep in mind while using the round function in Python is that it can cause a precision loss in floating-point numbers. This is because floating point numbers are represented in a binary format and not all decimal numbers can be represented exactly in binary. This can lead to rounding errors in calculations involving floating point numbers.

For example, let’s say we want to add the following two numbers:

**Code:**

```
a = 0.1
b = 0.2
c = a + b
print(c)
```

**Output:**

`0.30000000000000004`

**Explanation:**

As you can see, the result is not exactly 0.3 due to precision loss.

To avoid precision loss, it is recommended to use the decimal module in Python. This module provides a Decimal class that allows us to perform calculations with a specified level of precision.

**Conclusion**

The Python round function is a versatile tool for controlling the precision and rounding behavior of numeric values. Whether you’re performing mathematical calculations, formatting data for presentation, or ensuring accuracy in your code, understanding how to use round() effectively is essential.

In this article, we’ve explored the ins and outs of the round() function, covering its syntax, parameters, and practical applications. We’ve discussed rounding to a specified number of decimal places, handling ties using the "round half to even" strategy, and addressing common rounding issues like floating-point representation errors.

As you continue to work with numerical data in Python, remember that the round() function is a valuable feature for maintaining precision and consistency. By mastering its usage and considering best practices, you can write code that produces accurate results and communicates data effectively.

## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Related to Round Function in Python

Here are some Frequently Asked Questions on Python Round Function:

**1. What is the purpose of the round() function in Python?**

The round() function is used to control the precision and rounding behavior of numeric values. It allows you to round numbers to a specified number of decimal places or handle rounding ties.

**2. How does the round() function handle rounding ties (e.g., 0.5)?**

By default, the round() function uses the "round half to even" strategy, also known as "bankers’ rounding." When rounding ties, it rounds to the nearest even number to reduce bias.

**3. Can I use the round() function to round numbers to a specific number of decimal places?**

Yes, you can specify the number of decimal places as the second argument to the round() function. For example, round(3.14159265, 2) will round the number to two decimal places.

**4. Are there any potential issues or limitations when using the round() function with floating-point numbers?**

Yes, the round() function may not always produce the exact result you expect due to floating-point representation errors. It’s essential to be aware of these limitations when working with very large or very small numbers.

**5. Is there an equivalent function for rounding up or down in Python?**

Python’s math module provides math.ceil() for rounding up and math.floor() for rounding down. These functions can be used to achieve different rounding behaviors.

**6. How can I round numbers to the nearest whole number (integer)?**

To round a number to the nearest whole number, you can use the round() function without specifying the number of decimal places. For example, round(3.6) will round to 4, and round(3.4) will round to 3.