In this article we will learn about modules and packages in python, we will first have a basic introduction to modules and packages in python followed by an individual discussion on what is package in python and what is a module in python, then we will see how to create python package, and module in python followed by the difference between package and module in python and last the main reasons for the difference between module and package in python. By going through the whole article you will have a complete idea of python modules and packages.
What is the Need for Modules and Packages in Python?
While writing code or working on a program you need to use many functions, classes, and variables as we have to avoid repetition of the code so we make these functions but the code may be very large which may lead to a large number of functions and classes in the code and this may create confusion so in order to reduce the size of the code we group together some similar classes, functions, and variables and that collection is modules in python and to arrange the related modules into a single hierarchy we use packages in python and it can be referred as the collection of sub-packages and modules.
With the help of packages in python, you can namespace your modules to avoid them conflicting with the modules of the same name. And with the help of packages in python, you can reuse the code in multiple projects which saves a lot of time. We will understand modules and packages in python.
What is a Module in Python?
A module in Python is a single file that contains a collection of related functions, classes, and variables. It allows you to organize your code into reusable, modular units and also enables code reuse across different projects. Modules are typically used to group related functionality together, such as mathematical operations, file handling, or data processing. They can be imported into other Python scripts using the built-in import statement, which allows you to use the functions and classes defined in the module in your script.
Modules can also be used to define global variables and constants and can contain execution code that is executed when the module is imported. This code can be used to set up the module’s state or to perform any other necessary initialization. Additionally, modules can be executed as standalone scripts, allowing you to test the functionality of the module without having to import it into another script.
Modules in Python can also be grouped together in packages, which provide a way to organize related modules into a single hierarchy. Packages allow you to organize your code into logical groups and also provide a way to namespace your modules so that they don’t conflict with modules with the same name in other packages. The import statement can also be used to import modules from a package, which allows you to access the functions and classes defined in the package’s modules.
In summary, Modules in Python are a way to organize and reuse code, they allow you to group related functionality together, define global variables and constants, and namespace your code. They can be imported and used in other python scripts and can also be grouped in packages to organize related modules into a single hierarchy.
Example to create Module in Python
In this section, we will discuss a basic example to create a module in python. The code is saved in the file with the extension.py so let’s create a sample file like taking the example of a file prep.py and saving the code given below in that file.
def module_function(para): print("Example in python of creating a new Module: " + para)
Now we have to import this file into a new file and then use this module into that file to see if our module in python is working or not so let’s make a file with a name sample.py and paste the code given below in that file:
import prep prep.module_function("Prepbytes")
So in the above code we have imported the prep file in our code as a module and after importing we have used the file to access the function that we have created there with the name of “module_fucntion” and pass the word “Prepbytes” as the argument to function.
Example in python of creating a new Module: Prepbytes
Explanation of the above code
The above method will give the result as shown in the output because we have called the module_fucntion from the sample.py file and passes the argument Prepbytes and the rest of the content is the same and in place of para we have sent Prepbytes that leads to the corresponding output as shown above.
What is Python Package?
Python package is a way to organize related modules into a single hierarchy. It is a collection of modules and sub-packages and is defined by a directory structure with a special file called init.py in each directory. Packages in python allow you to organize your code into logical groups and also provide a way to namespace your modules so that they don’t conflict with modules with the same name in other packages.
A package in python can contain any number of sub-packages and modules. This allows you to create a complex, hierarchical structure for your code, with modules and sub-packages organized in a way that makes sense for your project. Packages can be imported using the import statement, just like modules. To import a module from a package, you use the package name followed by the module name separated by a dot. You can also use from package import module statement to import a specific module from a package.
Packages also provide a way to reuse code across multiple projects. For example, a package containing a set of common utility functions could be used in many different projects. This makes it easy to share code between different projects and teams, and also makes it easier to maintain and update the code.
Packages in python also allow for namespace separation, which helps in avoiding naming conflicts. For example, if two different teams are working on two different projects, they can create their own package and name their modules and classes with the same name, but since they are in different packages, they won’t conflict with each other.
In summary, Packages in Python are a way to organize and reuse code, they allow you to group related modules into a single hierarchy, organize your code into logical groups, provide a way to namespace your modules, and also allow for code reuse across multiple projects and namespace separation. They are defined by a directory structure with a special file called init.py in each directory and can be imported using the import statement. By this time you have a good idea about modules and packages in python here we will now discuss the example of what is python package.
Examples of packages
There are many packages available in python like :
We just have to write import and then we can use the packages in our code like shown below:
import math print("math package is imported in python")
math package is imported in python
Explanation of the above code
In the above code we have imported the math package in the python code by using the import keyword and then we have printed the statement that we have imported the math package and now we can use all the features and functions provided by that package in python and with these, we have understood packages and modules in python.
Difference between Modules and Packages in Python
Below is the Difference between Modules and Packages in python:
- There is no specific script present in the module that is specified for the user during run time whereas in packages there is init.py file which properly user-oriented script.
- A module is a file that, at runtime, includes a Python script for the users’ provided code. Additionally, a package alters user-interpreted code so that it may be used conveniently during runtime.
- When utilizing a library, the code is defined in a Python package as a distinct unit for each function. The benefit of packages over modules is their reusability, despite the fact that modules themselves are a different library with built-in functionality. So, this is how a module and package in python vary from one another.
This gives the code, which is executed for the first time, the default namespace. These namespaces serve as the source code for the coding’s identification. However, a novice programmer may also import them from the library. However, it is always advisable to be familiar with generic namespaces in order to execute code correctly.
def exam(): a='Greetings!' exam()
Explanation of the above code
In the above code we will show the namespace of the function that we have created above with the name exam.
Basically, this is a way to namespace certain code objects. It takes the user right to the heart of the code, making it simple to see problems as well. Additionally, it aids in parsing the codes so that they may be used as user interface code as needed.
import hello hello.hey() 'Hey, there!'
Explanation of the above example
In the above example we have seen how convenience API will give errors.
Advantages of Modules and Packages in Python
Advantages of modules and packages in python is as follows:
- Namespacing: Modules provide a way to organize related code into a single namespace, which helps to avoid naming conflicts and makes it easier to understand the structure of your code. Packages provide an additional level of organization, allowing you to group related modules together under a common namespace.
- Reusability: Modules allow you to organize your code into reusable chunks, which can be imported and used in multiple scripts. Packages in python allow you to create reusable libraries that can be shared across multiple projects.
Disadvantages of Modules and Packages in Python
Disadvantages of modules and packages in python are given below:
- Overuse can lead to complex imports and make code hard to follow
- Can be hard to find a package that fits your need
In the above article we have studied modules and packages in python we have discussed them from brief to proper explanations about both the topic including how to create module, how to create package, what is module in python what is python package after that we have discussed what is the difference between module and package in python followed by advantages and disadvantages of module and package in python.