Accenture is one of the most reputed company when it comes to providing services related to business, consultancy, and IT Services. But to get into Accenture is a bit difficult as you have to go through various exams testing your knowledge of various domains and one of the exams or test focuses on your technical knowledge. In this, the questions will be asked from various technical subjects like Operating systems, Database Management Systems, Computer Networks, etc.
Accenture Technical Interview Questions
In this section, we will discuss some of the commonly asked Accenture Technical Interview Questions.
1. What do you understand by Exception Handling?
Ans: Exception handling is a programming concept that allows a program to handle errors or unexpected situations that may occur during runtime. An exception is an event that interrupts the normal flow of a program’s execution, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, such as invalid input, hardware failure, or unexpected behavior of external dependencies.
In order to handle exceptions, a program must define specific actions to be taken in response to each type of exception that may occur. This usually involves using try-catch blocks, where the code that may raise an exception is placed inside a "try" block, and any potential exceptions are caught and handled in a "catch" block.
By handling exceptions, a program can recover from errors or unexpected situations and continue to run without crashing or causing further problems. This is important for ensuring the reliability and stability of a program, especially in production environments where errors can have serious consequences.
2. Explain the statement “ Java is platform independent”.
Ans: The statement "Java is platform independent" means that Java programs can run on different types of hardware and operating systems without requiring any modifications to the code. This is made possible by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), which is an abstract machine that provides a layer of insulation between the Java program and the underlying operating system.
When a Java program is compiled, it is translated into bytecode, which is a platform-independent format that can be executed by any JVM. This allows the same Java program to be run on any machine that has a compatible JVM, without the need for recompilation or any other changes to the code.
3. What is the main difference between class and object?
Ans: In object-oriented programming, a class is a blueprint or template for creating objects, while an object is an instance of a class.
In other words, a class is a logical entity that defines the properties, behavior, and methods that all objects of that class should have. It serves as a model that describes the characteristics of a set of objects, including their data and functionality. For example, a class called "Car" might have properties such as "make", "model", "color", and "year", and methods such as "start", "accelerate", and "stop".
An object, on the other hand, is a specific instance of a class. It is created from a class, using the constructor method, and contains all the properties and methods defined in that class. For example, an object of the "Car" class might be a specific car with a make of "Toyota", a model of "Camry", a color of "red", and a year of "2018".
4. What do you understand by recursion and recursive function?
Ans: Recursion is a programming technique in which a function calls itself, either directly or indirectly, in order to solve a problem. This can be a powerful and elegant way to solve problems that can be broken down into smaller, simpler sub-problems.
A recursive function is a function that calls itself, either directly or indirectly. Recursive functions are used to solve problems that can be broken down into smaller, simpler sub-problems, which are then solved by calling the same function again.
Recursive functions typically have a base case, which is a condition that determines when the function should stop calling itself and return a value. If the base case is not met, the function continues to call itself with smaller inputs until the base case is reached.
5. What is compile time polymorphism?
Ans: Compile time polymorphism, also known as method overloading or static polymorphism, is a feature of object-oriented programming that allows multiple methods in a class to have the same name, but different parameters.
When a method is overloaded, the compiler chooses which version of the method to call based on the number, type, and order of the arguments passed to the method. This allows the same method name to be used for different operations, making the code more concise and easier to read.
Compile time polymorphism is called "compile time" because the decision of which method to call is made by the compiler at compile time, rather than at runtime. This means that the performance of the code is not affected by the use of overloaded methods.
6. What do you understand by XML?
Ans: XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a markup language used to store and transport data. It is a simple and flexible language that allows developers to create their own customized tags and document structures. XML is similar to HTML in its syntax but is designed to be more flexible and extensible.
In XML, data is stored in a hierarchical structure, with each element or tag representing a piece of data. Each tag is enclosed in angle brackets and can contain attributes and data.
XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a markup language used to store and transport data. It is a simple and flexible language that allows developers to create their own customized tags and document structures. XML is similar to HTML in its syntax but is designed to be more flexible and extensible.
In XML, data is stored in a hierarchical structure, with each element or tag representing a piece of data. Each tag is enclosed in angle brackets and can contain attributes and data.
7. What is the use of pandas in python?
Ans: Pandas is a popular open-source data manipulation and analysis library for Python. It provides high-performance, easy-to-use data structures and data analysis tools for working with structured data, such as data in tabular form or time series data. Some of the key features and use cases of pandas include:
- Data manipulation: Pandas provides powerful data manipulation tools for filtering, transforming, and merging data, as well as for handling missing or duplicate data.
- Data analysis: Pandas provides a wide range of tools for data analysis, including statistical analysis, time series analysis, and visualization.
- Data input and output: Pandas supports a variety of file formats, including CSV, Excel, SQL databases, and more, making it easy to read and write data to and from different sources.
- Data cleaning: Pandas can be used to clean and preprocess data, including removing unwanted characters, changing data types, and filling in missing values.
- Data visualization: Pandas integrates with popular visualization libraries such as Matplotlib and Seaborn to create high-quality visualizations for data analysis and reporting.
8. What is encapsulation in OOPs?
Ans: Encapsulation is one of the fundamental concepts of object-oriented programming (OOP) that helps in organizing and protecting data and methods in a class. It refers to the practice of hiding the internal implementation details of an object from the outside world and providing a public interface for accessing and modifying the object’s state.
In encapsulation, the data and methods of a class are wrapped together as a single unit, and access to the data is restricted to the methods of the class. This helps to prevent unauthorized access and modification of the data, and ensures that the object’s state is always consistent.
Encapsulation is achieved through the use of access modifiers such as private, public, and protected, which control the visibility and accessibility of the data and methods of a class. Private data and methods are only accessible within the class, while public data and methods can be accessed from outside the class.
9. What is the importance of AVL trees?
Ans: AVL trees are a type of self-balancing binary search tree that ensures the tree is always balanced, with a maximum height difference of 1 between the left and right subtrees. The importance of AVL trees lies in their ability to maintain fast search and insertion times, even as the tree grows and changes over time.
Here are some of the key benefits and importance of AVL trees:
- Fast search: AVL trees provide fast search times, with a time complexity of O(log n) for both search and insertion operations. This makes them ideal for use in applications that require efficient data retrieval, such as database management systems.
- Self-balancing: AVL trees are self-balancing, meaning that they automatically adjust the tree structure to maintain a balance between the left and right subtrees. This ensures that the tree always has a logarithmic height, which results in faster search times and better performance.
- Easy to implement: AVL trees are easy to implement and can be used in a variety of programming languages. They are also a popular choice for use in libraries and frameworks for data structures.
- Improved performance: By maintaining a balanced tree structure, AVL trees improve the overall performance of the tree by reducing the number of nodes that need to be searched during each operation.
- Versatile: AVL trees can be used to store a wide range of data types, including integers, floating-point numbers, strings, and more. They are also used in a variety of applications, including database indexing, searching, and sorting.
10. What do you understand by semaphores in the operating systems?
Ans: In operating systems, semaphores are a synchronization tool used to manage access to shared resources by multiple processes or threads. They are used to prevent race conditions, deadlocks, and other issues that can arise when multiple processes or threads try to access the same resource at the same time.
A semaphore is essentially a counter that can be accessed by multiple processes or threads. Semaphores can be implemented in two ways: binary semaphores and counting semaphores.
Binary semaphores have two states: 0 and 1. They are used to control access to a single resource by multiple processes or threads. When a process or thread acquires the semaphore, it sets the value to 1. When it releases the semaphore, the value is set back to 0.
Counting semaphores have an integer value that can be incremented or decremented. They are used to control access to a pool of resources, where the number of resources available can vary over time. When a process or thread acquires a resource, the value of the semaphore is decremented. When it releases the resource, the value is incremented.
11. Explain short, medium, and long-term schedulers.
Ans: In operating systems, the process scheduling is managed by a combination of short-term, medium-term, and long-term schedulers, each with its own role in managing the allocation of system resources to processes. Here is an overview of each type of scheduler:
- Short-term scheduler: Also known as the CPU scheduler, this scheduler is responsible for selecting which process will execute on the CPU next. It decides which process from the ready queue will be given CPU time for a short period of time. Its main goal is to provide fairness and optimize CPU utilization while keeping the response time low. It runs frequently and its decision-making time should be short to keep the system responsive.
- Medium-term scheduler: This scheduler is responsible for managing the degree of multiprogramming in the system by selecting a process from the ready queue and swapping it out of main memory and into a secondary storage area such as a hard disk. The purpose of this is to free up memory space for other processes to execute.
- Long-term scheduler: This scheduler is responsible for selecting which new process should be admitted to the system. Its main goal is to maintain the balance between CPU and I/O operations. It decides whether to admit a new process to the system or reject it, based on the available system resources.
12. What is normalization?
Ans: Normalization is the process of organizing data in a database in such a way that it reduces redundancy and dependency. The goal of normalization is to create a database schema that is efficient, easy to maintain, and avoids data inconsistencies or anomalies.
Normalization is typically achieved through a series of steps called normal forms. There are several normal forms that are commonly used in database design, ranging from the first normal form (1NF) to the sixth normal form (6NF). Each normal form has a set of rules that a table must satisfy in order to be considered normalized.
13. What is the difference between cold backup and hot backup?
Ans: A backup is a copy of data that can be used to restore the original data in case of data loss or corruption. There are two main types of backups: cold backup and hot backup.
- Cold Backup: In a cold backup, the database or system is completely shut down before the backup is taken. The backup process involves copying all the files associated with the system, including data files, configuration files, and log files. The backup can then be used to restore the system to the point when the backup was taken. Cold backups are usually taken when the system is not critical or can be taken offline for a period of time.
- Hot Backup: In a hot backup, the system continues to operate while the backup is being taken. The backup process involves copying data files and transaction logs while the system is still running. This allows for a more up-to-date backup than a cold backup, but it also requires more complex backup software and hardware to ensure that data is not lost or corrupted during the backup process. Hot backups are typically used when the system cannot be taken offline, or when the data is too critical to be offline for a long period of time.
14. Differentiate between VARCHAR2 and CHAR.
Ans: VARCHAR2 and CHAR are two data types used in relational database systems such as Oracle. Both are used to store character strings, but they have some important differences:
- VARCHAR2: VARCHAR2 is a variable-length character data type. This means that it can store a varying number of characters, up to a maximum size specified when the column is created. If you store a shorter string in a VARCHAR2 column, it will take up less space than the maximum size specified. For example, if you create a VARCHAR2 column with a maximum size of 50, and you store the string "Hello" in it, it will only take up 5 bytes of space.
- CHAR: CHAR is a fixed-length character data type. This means that it always stores a fixed number of characters, up to a maximum size specified when the column is created. If you store a shorter string in a CHAR column, it will be padded with spaces to fill up the maximum size. For example, if you create a CHAR column with a maximum size of 50, and you store the string "Hello" in it, it will take up 50 bytes of space, with 45 spaces added after the string to fill up the remaining space.
15. Explain the response time and turnaround time in OS.
Ans: In operating systems, response time and turnaround time are two important metrics used to measure the performance of a system.
- Response Time: Response time is the time it takes for a system to respond to a user’s request or input. It is the time between when a user initiates a request and when the system begins to respond to that request. For example, if a user clicks a button and it takes 2 seconds for the system to start processing that request, the response time is 2 seconds
- Turnaround Time: Turnaround time is the time it takes for a process to complete execution from the time it is submitted to the system. It is the time between when a process is submitted to the system and when it completes execution and exits the system. Turnaround time includes the time spent waiting in the queue, the time spent executing, and the time spent waiting for I/O operations.
16. What are DDL commands in DBMS?
Ans: DDL (Data Definition Language) commands in DBMS are used to define, modify, and manipulate the structure of the database. DDL commands are used to create, alter, and drop database objects like tables, views, indexes, sequences, etc. Some of the most common DDL commands in DBMS are:
CREATE, ALTER, DROP, TRUNCATE, RENAME, COMMENT.
DDL commands are used by database administrators, developers, and programmers to manage and modify the structure of the database, ensuring that it meets the requirements of the applications that use it. These commands are essential for maintaining the integrity and efficiency of a database.
17. What do you understand by friend function?
Ans: In C++, a friend function is a function that is granted access to the private and protected members of a class. A friend function is not a member of the class, but it is declared in the class with the keyword "friend". The friend function can access the private and protected members of the class as if it were a member of the class.
The friend function is useful when we need to access the private or protected members of a class from a non-member function. For example, if we have a class that has private data members, we can declare a friend function that can access these data members and perform some operations on them.
18. What are the lambda functions in java?
Ans: Lambda functions, also known as lambda expressions, are a feature introduced in Java 8 that allows you to write functional code in a more concise and readable way. Lambda functions are a type of anonymous function that can be used in place of a method or a class that implements a single-method interface. A lambda function can be used to define a function inline, without the need to write a separate class or method.
Lambda functions can be used in a variety of situations, such as filtering and sorting collections, processing data streams, and handling events in graphical user interfaces. They provide a more concise and readable way of writing functional code, and they make it easier to write code that is more modular and reusable.
19. In multithreading what is the deadlock condition?
Ans: In multithreading, a deadlock is a situation where two or more threads are blocked and waiting for each other to release resources that they need to proceed, causing a circular dependency that prevents any of the threads from making progress.
A typical example of a deadlock condition involves two or more threads that are each holding a resource that the other thread needs in order to proceed. For example, thread A may hold resource X and be waiting for resource Y, while thread B may hold resource Y and be waiting for resource X. Since neither thread can proceed without the resource held by the other thread, they become deadlocked.
20. What do you mean by query in SQL?
Ans: In SQL, a query is a request for data or information from a database. A query can be used to retrieve, insert, update, or delete data in a database, and it can be executed using a SQL statement. A SQL query typically involves one or more tables in a database and specifies what data to retrieve and how to retrieve it.
SQL queries can also be used to perform more complex operations, such as joining multiple tables, aggregating data, and sorting results. The syntax and structure of SQL queries may vary depending on the specific database system being used, but the basic principles of querying data from a database using SQL are generally the same across different systems.
Frequently Asked Questions
1. What is Accenture’s stock symbol?
Accenture’s stock symbol is ACN, and it is traded on the New York Stock Exchange.
2. How does Accenture use technology in its business?
Accenture is a technology-focused company and uses a wide range of digital technologies to help clients achieve their goals, including artificial intelligence, machine learning, cloud computing, and more.
3. What are some of Accenture’s recent acquisitions?
Accenture has made a number of recent acquisitions, including Myrtle Consulting Group, PLM Systems, and Callisto Integration, among others.
4. What are some of the benefits of working at Accenture?
Some of the benefits of working at Accenture include opportunities for career development, a strong focus on learning and development, a collaborative and inclusive workplace culture.
5. What is Accenture’s approach to sustainability?
Accenture is committed to sustainability and has implemented a range of initiatives to reduce its environmental impact, including reducing carbon emissions, conserving water, and increasing energy efficiency.