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# Calculator Program in Python

Last Updated on May 23, 2023 by Prepbytes By doing the calculator program, we will examine one of the most logical and intuitive principles in this Article. In this post, we will describe the dry run, the algorithm, and the Python code for the calculator program, which focuses on the functionality and features of the calculator.

By the end of the article, the reader will be knowledgeable and proficient enough to apply a variety of mathematical operations to a few operands to obtain the desired output.

## Calculator Program in Python

By taking user input and displaying the output as the result of the calculation, a calculator program may be used to execute mathematical operations on two integers, including addition, subtraction, division, multiplication, and modulo.

The method discussed in this article will be using simple if-else conditions to print the result output on the basis of operation selected by the user as input.

### Dry Run of Calculator Program in Python

Suppose we have two operands at our disposal, p and q, and we have to perform one of the following arithmetic operation discussed, namely, as follow:

2. Subtraction
3. Multiplication
4. Division
5. Modulo (Remainder)

hence we assign 5 to a while 3 to b, tracing out for each operation,

Addition can be stated as, a+b which results in 5+3 = 8.

Subtraction can be stated as, a-b which results in 5-3 = 2.

Multiplication can be stated as, ab which results in 53 = 12.

Division can be stated as, a/b which results in 5//3 = 1. The division in python with two slash characters means that integer division is being performed as a single slash would return float value.

Modulo can be stated as, a%b which results in 5%3 = 2. It reacts as a remainder finding operator in Python with its support extending to most of the programming languages.

As suggested above, any of the operations will be performed, with the result stored in a variable. On printing the result, the program is terminated successfully.

### Algorithm for Calculator Program in Python

Now that we are already through with a dry run example on all of the operations to perform for a calculator program in python which might have made it easier for you to understand its algorithm. Here is a short and concise algorithm learning up to the implementation of code for the calculator program in python.

1. Start the program
2. Take two numbers as user input using the input function
3. Take the operation to be performed using the input function
4. Use conditional logic, if-else to select the operation to perform on the two operands.
5. Store the computed value in an object named result.
6. Print the result.
7. End the program.

### Code for Calculator Program in Python

Since we are through with the algorithm and dry run part, let us look at the calculator program in python. The link to the code is attached below along with the explanation.

### Approach- Using If-Else Method

```p = int(input("Enter the first input: "))
q = int(input("Enter the second input: "))

oper = input("Enter the type of operation you want to perform (+, -, *, /, %): ")

result = 0
if oper == "+":
result = p+q
elif oper == "-":
result = p-q
elif oper == "*":
result = p*q
elif oper == "/":
result = p//q # Integer Division
elif oper == "%":
result = p%q
else:
print("Invalid Input")

Explanation: In the above linked code, the first operand named p, taken as input proceeded with taking the second operand, named q, taken as input in the next line. The following line asks for the operation to perform. Once all the inputs are collected, conditional if-else check for each operation matching with the input, as soon as operator is matched with the input, the operation is performed to store the computed value in an object named result. The result is printed at the end, in case of incorrect input, Invalid Input is presented on screen.

Output:

``````Enter the first number: 3
Enter the second number: 7
Enter the type of operation you want to perform (+, -, *, /, %): +

### Analysis of Calculator Program in Python

As far as the time complexity is concerned, no such iterations are made with five conditions to perform operations on the two operands taken as input, the time complexity of the program remains constant. Hence Time Complexity can be denoted as O(1).

For space complexity, no extra auxiliary space is consumed with the only storage used being for a couple of integer operands and an operation string. Thus, the space complexity for the calculator program is constant as well. The Space Complexity can be denoted as O(1).

Conclusion
In this conversation, we discussed the implementation of a calculator program in Python. We covered the basic functionality of a calculator, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division operations. We also implemented additional features such as exponentiation, square root, and modulus. Throughout the discussion, we focused on creating a user-friendly interface by utilizing functions, loops, and exception handling to ensure the program runs smoothly and handles invalid inputs gracefully.

The calculator program we built serves as a solid foundation, but there are countless possibilities for expansion and improvement. You can customize and enhance the program to suit your specific needs or add more advanced mathematical operations.

Q1: Can I add more operations to the calculator?
Ans. Yes, you can expand the calculator program by adding more operations. You can define new functions for operations such as logarithm, trigonometric functions, or any other mathematical functions you desire.

Q2: How can I handle decimal numbers or floating-point arithmetic?
Ans. By default, Python performs floating-point arithmetic for division operations. If you want to handle decimal numbers, you can use the float() function to convert user input or modify the program accordingly. Additionally, you can format the output to display a certain number of decimal places using string formatting techniques.

Q3: What happens if I enter invalid input or divide by zero?
Ans. The program incorporates exception handling to handle errors gracefully. If you enter invalid input (e.g., non-numeric characters), the program will catch the error and display an appropriate message. Similarly, if you attempt to divide by zero, the program will catch the ZeroDivisionError and handle it appropriately.

Q4: Can I use this calculator program for scientific calculations?
Ans. While the calculator program we developed is relatively simple, it can serve as a starting point for more advanced calculations. To perform scientific calculations, you may need to import specialized modules such as math to access functions for advanced operations like logarithms, trigonometry, or statistical functions.

Q5: Is it possible to create a graphical user interface (GUI) for the calculator?
Ans. Yes, it is possible to create a GUI for the calculator program using Python libraries such as Tkinter, PyQt, or PySide. These libraries provide tools and widgets to build graphical interfaces that can enhance the user experience and make the calculator more visually appealing.